MODERATOR: Carl Zimmer
PARTICIPANTS: Heather Berlin, Mélanie Boly, Christof Koch, Gary Marcus, Rafael Yuste
PROGRAM DATE: Friday, May 31, 2013

Philosophers remain puzzled over the meaning of consciousness, but now scientists are asking another question: How do you measure it? In this salon, we reveal the techniques and technologies that scientists are developing to peer inside the human brain and eavesdrop on neurons.


The World Science Festival’s annual salon series offers in-depth conversations with leading scientists, extending the discussion of the Festival’s premiere public programs to graduate students, postdocs, faculty and well-informed members of the general public.

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Science Writer

Award-winning science writer Carl Zimmer explores the frontiers of biology in his writing. His work appears regularly in The New York Times and many magazines, and he is the author of twelve books, including A Planet of Viruses.

Zimmer is a contributing editor and columnist for Discover, and his blog, The Loom, appears on the magazine’s web site. He has won the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Science Journalism Award twice, in 2004 and 2009.


Heather Berlin Headshot_192
Cognitive Neuroscientist

Heather Berlin is assistant professor of psychiatry and neuroscience at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and visiting scholar at the New York Psychoanalytic Society. She explores interactions of the human brain and mind with the goal of contributing to improved treatment and prevention of impulsive and compulsive psychiatric disorders. She is also interested in the neural basis of consciousness, dynamic unconscious processes, and creativity. Berlin is a committee member for the National Academy of Sciences’ Science and Entertainment Exchange, host of the CUNY TV series Science Goes to the Movies and presenter on the Discovery Channel series Superhuman Showdown. She has made numerous media appearances, including the History Channel, BBC World Service, StarTalk Radio with Neil deGrasse Tyson, and TEDx. Heather Berlin received her Ph.D. from the University of Oxford and Master of Public Health from Harvard University.


Melanie Boly is a neurologist and postdoctoral research fellow at the Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research and at University of Wisconsin-Madison. She conducts research investigating the neural correlates of decreased consciousness during vegetative state, anesthesia, and sleep using functional neuroimaging techniques. For eleven years she has worked with Steven Laureys at the Coma Science Group at University of Liege in Belgium. In the past she has worked with Adrian Owen in Cambridge, UK to design active paradigms (such as ‘imagine playing tennis’) capable of detecting consciousness in unresponsive brain damaged patients. She completed her postdoc with Karl Friston at University College London in 2010. She is currently working at the Center for Sleep and Consciousness in Madison, Wisconsin with Giulio Tononi. Her present work aims to develop a theoretical approach to the study of the neural correlates of consciousness in states such as sleep, anesthesia, or brain damage using functional brain imaging.

Christof Koch_192px

Born in the American Midwest, Christof Koch grew up in Holland, Germany, Canada, and Morocco. He studied Physics and Philosophy and was awarded his Ph.D. in Biophysics. In 1987, Koch joined the California Institute of Technology as a Professor in Biology and Engineering. After a quarter of a century, he left academia for the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle, where he is now President and Chief Scientific Officer, leading a decade-long, large-scale effort to build brain observatories to map, analyze, and understand the mouse and human cerebral cortex. Koch has authored more than 300 scientific papers and five books concerned with the way computers and neurons process information and the neuronal and computational basis of visual perception. Together with his longtime collaborator, Francis Crick, Koch pioneered the scientific study of consciousness. His latest book is Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist.

Cognitive Psychologist

Gary Marcus, described by the New York Times as “one of the country’s best-known cognitive psychologists,” has published numerous articles on language, evolution, computation, and cognitive development, in leading scientific journals. He’s the author of four books, including Kluge, The Algebraic Mind, and the New York Times bestseller Guitar Zero. He writes frequently for The Times, The New Yorker, and The Wall Street Journal. His latest book, The Future of the Brain: Essays by the World’s Leading Neuroscientists, co-edited with Jeremy Freeman, features Nobel laureates May-Britt and Edvard Moser.

Rafael Yuste

Rafael Yuste isprofessor of biological sciences and neuroscience at Columbia University. He was born in Madrid, where he obtained his M.D. at the Universidad Autónoma. After a brief period in Sydney Brenner’s laboratory in Cambridge, UK, he performed Ph.D. studies with Larry Katz in Torsten Wiesel’s laboratory at Rockefeller University and was a postdoctoral student of David Tank at Bell Labs. In1996,Yuste joined the department of biological sciences at Columbia University. In 2005, he became HHMI investigator and co-director of the Kavli Institute for Brain Circuits at Columbia. He has pioneered the application of optical imaging techniques to study the structure and function of the cerebral cortex. He recently helped launched the BRAIN Initiative, an large-scale scientific project to systematically record and manipulate the activity of complete neural circuits.Rafael Yuste has obtained many awards, including the NYC Mayor’s Young Investigator Award.